The Island came into Turkish hands in 1556 without any battle being fought. The people of Chios maintained most of their privileges and the people were allowed to keep their properties. Attempts were made by the Franks and the Venetians to liberate the island but were unsuccessful. The mastic of the island was being supplied to the Sultan.
During the 18th century Chios developed economic and cultural activities. The school of Chios was established during this period. The Greek war of independence reached the island in 1822.
This caused a reaction from the Turks. When the Turkish fleet reached the island their admiral was determined to teach the "rebels" a lesson. For two weeks the Turks destroyed, burned an killed anything that came in their way. More than 25.000 people lost their life. This great barbarity outraced most nations but Chios stayed under Turkish rule. Kostandinos Kanaris sank the turkish flag ship that same year. However it wasn't until 1912 that Chios was finally liberated and became part of the Greek state.